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Eye anatomy

The makeup of your eyes

Your eyes play a crucial role in almost everything you do. To understand how you are able to see the world around you, it is helpful to understand the anatomy of the human eye.

 

Your eyes are made up of a number of components. The main ones are

Pupil

The black hole in the middle of your eye that allows light in.

Iris

The colored part of your eye that controls the amount of light passing through the pupil.

Sclera

The white part of your eye.

Conjunctiva

A thin layer of tissue lining the eyelid and eyeball that protects your eye and keeps it moist.

Cornea

A transparent dome that protects the iris and pupil. Together with the lens, the cornea bends (refracts) light to focus it onto the back of your eye.

Crystalline lens

A transparent disc behind the iris.

Retina

The back of your eye that contains millions of photoreceptors (sensors that convert light into electric signals). These signals are sent along the optic nerve to your brain, where they are processed to create an image.

Macula

A small spot near the middle of the retina that is responsible for central vision.

Vitreous humor

A jelly-like substance that fills the middle of your eye, giving it form and shape.

Optic nerve

The nerve at the back of your eye that carries signals from the retina to the brain.

Aqueous humor

A clear fluid in the space between the iris and the cornea. This maintains eye pressure and gives the front of your eye its rounded shape.

Hoya Vision eye anatomy eye animation

Your vision is a result of complex interaction

The components of the eye are finely tuned into a delicate system. To find out how these different components work together to enable you to see, go to…

How eyesight works